when was the russian empire founded

After the Russian armies liberated allied (since the 1783 Treaty of Georgievsk) Eastern Georgian Kingdom from the Qajar dynasty's occupation in 1802,[citation needed] in the Russo-Persian War (1804–13) they clashed with Persia over control and consolidation over Georgia, and also got involved in the Caucasian War against the Caucasian Imamate. Access to the Baltic Sea was blocked by Sweden, whose territory enclosed it on three sides. By the middle of 1915, the impact of the war was demoralizing. The serfdom that had developed in Russia in the 16th century, and had become enshrined by law in 1649, was abolished in 1861. But the revolt was easily crushed, leading Nicholas to turn away from the modernization program begun by Peter the Great and champion the doctrine of Orthodoxy, Autocracy, and Nationality. [37] However, Britain became alarmed when Russia threatened Afghanistan, with the implicit threat to India, and decades of diplomatic maneuvering resulted, called The Great Game. By envisioning their own role in a rail network they came to understand how important they were to the empire's economy. Russian agricultural kholops were formally converted into serfs earlier in 1679. The company also established settlements in Hawaii, including Fort Elizabeth (1817), and as far south in North America as Fort Ross Colony (established in 1812) in Sonoma County, California just north of San Francisco. Poland was divided in the 1790–1815 era, with much of its land and population being taken under Russian rule. Expansion into the vast stretches of Siberia was slow and expensive, but finally became possible with the building of the Trans-Siberian Railway, 1890 to 1904. In January 1905, an incident known as "Bloody Sunday" occurred when Father Georgy Gapon led an enormous crowd to the Winter Palace in Saint Petersburg to present a petition to the Tsar. The formerly Swedish-controlled Baltic provinces (Courland, Livonia and Estonia) were incorporated into the Russian Empire after the defeat of Sweden in the Great Northern War. Russia was in a continuous state of financial crisis. Beketov was sent to the Lena River in 1631, ... Russian Empire Administrative divisions. Under Alexander III, however, by laws promulgated in 1892 and 1894, the municipal dumas were subordinated to the governors in the same way as the zemstvos. [46], In 1903, at the 2nd Congress of the Russian Social Democratic Labour Party in London, the party split into two wings: the gradualist Mensheviks and the more radical Bolsheviks. The Russian Empire(Pre-reform Russian orthography: Россійская Имперія, Modern Russian: Российская империя, translit:Rossiyskaya Imperiya) is a country situated in northern Eurasia.It is a semi-constitutional monarchy that existed from 1721 to the present. The early Romanovs were weak monarchs. Moreover, a democratic element was introduced by the adoption of the jury system and – so far as one order of tribunal was concerned – the election of judges. The result was the Decembrist revolt (December 1825), the work of a small circle of liberal nobles and army officers who wanted to install Nicholas' brother as a constitutional monarch. In 1859, there were more than 23 million serfs in usually poor living conditions. But even this sheet of water is an inland sea, the only outlet of which, the Bosphorus, was in foreign hands, while the Caspian, an immense shallow lake, mostly bordered by deserts, possessed more importance as a link between Russia and its Asiatic settlements than as a channel for intercourse with other countries. Nevertheless, his minister of education, Sergey Uvarov at the university level was able to promote more academic freedom for the faculty, who were under suspicion by reactionary church officials. Government during this period usually rested in the hands of individuals who for one reason or another exercised personal influence over the tsars. The establishment of a judicial system on these principles constituted a major change in the conception of the Russian state, which, by placing the administration of justice outside the sphere of the executive power, ceased to be a despotism. The legal code known as Russkaya Pravda (Russian Truth) is founded in his reign. [70], After the Emancipation reform, one quarter of peasants received allotments of only 1.2 hectares (2.9 acres) per male, and one-half less than 3.4 to 4.6 hectares (8.5 to 11.4 acres); the normal size of the allotment necessary for the subsistence of a family under the three-fields system is estimated at 11 to 17 hectares (28 to 42 acres). During his reign Russia declared the Franco-Russian Alliance to contain the growing power of Germany, completed the conquest of Central Asia and demanded important territorial and commercial concessions from the Qing. The ecclesiastical heads of the national Russian Orthodox Church consisted of three metropolitans (Saint Petersburg, Moscow, Kyiv), fourteen archbishops and fifty bishops, all drawn from the ranks of the monastic (celibate) clergy. Fyodor Dostoyevsky, for example, ridiculed the St. Petersburg newspapers, such as Golos and Peterburgskii Listok, which he accused of publishing trifles and distracting readers from the pressing social concerns of contemporary Russia through their obsession with spectacle and European popular culture. [57] The Duma of the Empire or Imperial Duma (Gosudarstvennaya Duma), which formed the Lower House of the Russian parliament, consisted (since the ukaz of 2 June 1907) of 442 members, elected by an exceedingly complicated process. The first modern state in Russia was founded in 862 by King Rurik of the Rus, who was made the ruler of Novgorod. He argues that they brought about measurable improvements in social welfare. The ministers, also nominated, were ex officio members. Furthermore, the empire at times controlled concession territories, notably the Kwantung Leased Territory and the Chinese Eastern Railway, both conceded by Qing China, as well as a concession in Tianjin. A committed Slavophile, Alexander III believed that Russia could be saved from turmoil only by shutting itself off from the subversive influences of Western Europe. [citation needed]. A Review Article", Suny, Ronald Grigor. The peasants were represented by delegates selected by the regional subdivisions called volosts. [73], The situation of the former serf-proprietors was also unsatisfactory. [39], In 1894, Alexander III was succeeded by his son, Nicholas II, who was committed to retaining the autocracy that his father had left him. Her reign, which lasted nearly 20 years, is also known for her involvement in the Seven Years' War. Of these 11 Governorates, 17 oblasts and 1 okrug (Sakhalin) belonged to Asian Russia. Its matrilineal branch of patrilineal German descent, the House of Holstein-Gottorp-Romanov, ruled from 1762 until the end of the empire. On the Baltic Sea, Peter I founded a new capital called Saint Petersburg. Soviet historiography proclaimed that the Russian Empire of the 19th century was characterized by systemic crisis, which impoverished the workers and peasants and culminated in the revolutions of the early 20th century. Elizabeth supported the arts, architecture and the sciences (for example with the foundation of the Moscow University). But the socialists rejected the concessions as insufficient and tried to organise new strikes. [45] On the left, the Socialist Revolutionary Party (SRs) incorporated the Narodnik tradition and advocated the distribution of land among those who actually worked it — the peasants. In October 1905, Nicholas reluctantly issued the October Manifesto, which conceded the creation of a national Duma (legislature) to be called without delay. In ancient times, Greek and Iranian settlements appeared in the southernmost portions of what is now Ukraine. The serfs were freed in 1861, but the landowning aristocratic class kept control. [18] As Napoleon's forces retreated, the Russian troops pursued them into Central and Western Europe and to the gates of Paris. All the property turned over to the peasants was owned collectively by the mir, the village community, which divided the land among the peasants and supervised the various holdings. They found it in Michael Romanov, a young boyar (nobleman), who was elected tsar in 1613. When Tsar Alexander II ascended the throne in 1855, desire for reform was widespread. 1905 map of Siberia. [12], Catherine the Great was a German princess who married Peter III, the German heir to the Russian crown. The western boundary was purely conventional: it crossed the Kola Peninsula from the Varangerfjord to the Gulf of Bothnia. There were no schools open to girls. By the end of the 19th century the area of the empire was about 22,400,000 square kilometers (8,600,000 sq mi), or almost ​1⁄6 of the Earth's landmass; its only rival in size at the time was the British Empire. Then, by plotting with the rulers of Austria and Prussia, she incorporated territories of the Polish–Lithuanian Commonwealth during the Partitions of Poland, pushing the Russian frontier westward into Central Europe. It was successful for Russia militarily, but fruitless politically. He led a cultural revolution that replaced some of the traditionalist and medieval social and political mores with a modern, scientific, Europe-oriented, and rationalist system. The latter path was advocated by Slavophiles, who held the "decadent" West in contempt. [47], Defeat in the Russo-Japanese War (1904–1905) was a major blow to the Tsarist regime and further increased the potential for unrest. Paper money was issued to pay for expensive wars, thus causing inflation. Japan strongly opposed Russian expansion, and defeated Russia in a war in 1904–1905. But she did not carry out significant structural reforms. When Britain threatened to declare war over the terms of the Treaty of San Stefano, an exhausted Russia backed down. Most of the 19th century growth came from adding territory in Asia, south of Siberia. Kennard, Howard Percy, and Netta Peacock, eds. Under Russia's revised Fundamental Law of 20 February 1906, the Council of the Empire was associated with the Duma as a legislative Upper House; from this time the legislative power was exercised normally by the Emperor only in concert with the two chambers. Please select which sections you would like to print: Corrections? The events of the February Revolution and the fierce political struggles inside army units facilitated disintegration and made it irreversible. France, Britain and Austria tried to intervene in the crisis but were unable to do so. Russia lacked that, and for university education, young men went to Western Europe. At the highest level, universities were set up on the German model in Kazan, Kharkov, St. Petersburg, Vilna and Dorpat, while the relatively young Imperial Moscow University was expanded. 1736 - A weakened Safavid Empire is overthrown by Nadir Shah. Some of the tsar’s ostensible subjects, such as the inhabitants of Siberia and the Cossacks, lived in completely autonomous communities, only nominally under the authority of the tsar. of self-government and numerous privileges in matters affecting education, police and the administration of local justice. [78], Tsar Nicholas I was a reactionary who wanted to neutralize foreign ideas, especially those he ridiculed as "pseudo-knowledge." The Russian masses were so furious over the massacre that a general strike was declared demanding a democratic republic. In November 1906, however, the emperor Nicholas II promulgated a provisional order permitting the peasants to become freeholders of allotments made at the time of emancipation, all redemption dues being remitted. The first of these, based on the English model, are the courts of the elected justices of the peace, with jurisdiction over petty causes, whether civil or criminal; the second, based on the French model, are the ordinary tribunals of nominated judges, sitting with or without a jury to hear important cases. [35][36], Russia had much less difficulty in expanding to the south, including the conquest of Turkestan. The membership was manipulated as to secure an overwhelming majority of the wealthy (especially the landed classes) and also for the representatives of the Russian peoples at the expense of the subject nations. Updates? The Siberia Governorate was established in 1708 as part of the administrative reforms of Peter I. It functioned poorly during World War I. Tsar Nicholas II was executed and the imperial family murdered in 1918 by the Bolsheviks, who took power in the 1920s after the Revolution and a bloody Civil War with the White Army, forced into exile (or executed) most of the aristocratic class, and repressed many others, culminating in the establishment of the Soviet Union in 1922. These elected their delegates to the Duma directly, and though their votes were divided (on the basis of taxable property) in such a way as to give the advantage to wealth, each returned the same number of delegates. Instead of imposing the traditional punishment of drawing and quartering, Catherine issued secret instructions that the executioners should carry the death sentences quickly and with a minimum of suffering, as part of her effort to introduce compassion into the law. Gatrell, Peter. "The empire strikes out: Imperial Russia,‘national’ identity, and theories of empire." The millions of rubles of redemption money received from the crown was spent without any real or lasting agricultural improvements having been effected. The abdication of Nicholas II on March 15, 1917, marked the end of the empire and its ruling Romanov dynasty. The first mentioning of some community in the territory of what we now refer toas Russia came to be in the Fourth Century AD with the formation of the first tribal union of Eastern Slavs (Volhynians and Buzhans). The system established by the law of 1864 was significant in that it set up two wholly separate orders of tribunals, each having their own courts of appeal and coming in contact only in the Senate, as the supreme court of cassation. "Between Local and Inter-Imperial: Russian Imperial History in Search of Scope and Paradigm. Russian victories in these wars greatly expanded Peter’s empire, and the defeat of Sweden won Russia direct access to the Baltic Sea, a lifelong obsession of the Russian leader. More generally, he finds that the well-being of the Russian people declined during most of the 18th century, but increased slowly from the end of the 18th century to 1914.[64][65]. Empress Catherine the Great (reigned 1762–1796) presided over a golden age; she expanded the state by conquest, colonization and diplomacy, continuing Peter the Great's (Peter I's) policy of modernization along Western European lines. European Russia thus embraced 59 governorates and 1 oblast (that of the Don). A major peasant uprising took place in 1773, after Catherine legalised the selling of serfs separate from land. In the aftermath of the Russo-Turkish War, 1806–12, and the ensuing Treaty of Bucharest (1812), the eastern parts of the Principality of Moldavia, an Ottoman vassal state, along with some areas formerly under direct Ottoman rule, came under the rule of the Empire. In the North it met the Arctic Ocean. But the specter of revolution and disorder continued to haunt her and her successors. [51] The execution of the Romanov family at the hands of Bolsheviks followed in July 1918. [17], In 1812 French Emperor Napoleon, following a dispute with Tsar Alexander I, launched an invasion of Russia. Peter's first military efforts were directed against the Ottoman Turks. He presided over the redrawing of the map of Europe at the Congress of Vienna (1815), which ultimately made Alexander the monarch of Congress Poland. 1650s - Iran begins to lose territories to European countries such as Great Britain, Russia, and France. Catherine II (the Great), who ruled from 1762-1796, presided over the Age of Russian Enlightenment. Peter the Great changed his title from Tsar in 1721, when he was declared Emperor of all Russia. Peter reorganized his government based on the latest political models of the time, moulding Russia into an absolutist state. Under the Treaty of Nystad of 1721, the Baltic German nobility retained considerable powers He tripled the territory of his state, ended the dominance of the Golden Horde, renovated the Moscow Kremlin, and laid the foundations of the Russian state. "Tsarist Russia at War: The View from Above, 1914 – February 1917. The tsar's most influential adviser was Konstantin Pobedonostsev, tutor to Alexander III and his son Nicholas, and procurator of the Holy Synod from 1880 to 1895. After regaining control of the country, a convention of leading Russians elected Michael Romanov to be the new Tsar. [citation needed] According to another point of view, the term Tsardom, which was used after the coronation of Ivan IV in 1547, was already a contemporary Russian word for empire. In spite of this, all three were popular tsars who left behind a good reputation among the people and whom the Slavophiles of the 19th century idealized as model Russian monarchs. His ministers were responsible solely to him, and not to the Duma or any other authority, which could question but not remove them. The empire had a predominantly agricultural economy, with low productivity on large estates worked by Russian peasants, known as serfs, who were tied to the land in a feudal arrangement. The Russian patriotic press used the Polish uprising to unify the Russian nation, claiming it was Russia's God-given mission to save Poland and the world. On the international stage Yaroslav plays the medieval game of matrimonial diplomacy as assiduously as any of his contemporaries. By 1800, the level of literacy among male peasants ranged from 1 to 12 percent and 20 to 25 percent for urban men. The central authorities and the imperial elite made most of the key decisions, but local elites set up a demand for rail linkages. "[5] Swain says, "The first government to be formed after the February Revolution of 1917 had, with one exception, been composed of liberals."[4][5]. [42] The Industrial Revolution began to show significant influence in Russia, but the country remained rural and poor. Ring in the new year with a Britannica Membership. For administration, Russia was divided (as of 1914) into 81 governorates (guberniyas), 20 oblasts, and 1 okrug. On the left the Socialist Revolutionaries and Social Democrats wanted to expropriate the landowners, without payment, but debated whether to divide the land up among the peasants, or to put it into collective local ownership. [32] Emancipation brought a supply of free labour to the cities, stimulating industry, and the middle class grew in number and influence. The Gulf of Riga and the Baltic belong also to territory which was not inhabited by Slavs, but by Baltic and Finnic peoples and by Germans. Much of Russia's expansion occurred in the 17th century, culminating in the first Russian colonisation of the Pacific in the mid-17th century, the Russo-Polish War (1654–67) that incorporated left-bank Ukraine, and the Russian conquest of Siberia. In particular, they called into being a loyal and competent administration, and centralised the government. ", Richard Cavendish, "The Bolshevik-Menshevik split November 16th, 1903. To the South it had the Black Sea and Caucasus, being separated from the latter by the Manych River depression, which in Post-Pliocene times connected the Sea of Azov with the Caspian. At the Congress of Berlin in July 1878, Russia agreed to the creation of a smaller Bulgaria, as an autonomous principality inside the Ottoman Empire. Only a small percentage of the population lived in towns. Following the Swedish defeat in the Finnish War of 1808–1809 and the signing of the Treaty of Fredrikshamn on 17 September 1809, the eastern half of Sweden, the area that then became Finland was incorporated into the Russian Empire as an autonomous grand duchy. However, instead of receiving their lands as a gift, the freed peasants had to pay a special tax for what amounted to their lifetime to the government, which in turn paid the landlords a generous price for the land that they had lost. Recent research by Russian scholars disputes this interpretation. Russian is a Slavic language of the Indo-European family.All Indo-European languages are descendants of a single prehistoric language, reconstructed as Proto-Indo-European, spoken sometime in the Neolithic era. More than 100 different ethnic groups lived in the Russian Empire, with ethnic Russians composing about 45% of the population.[52]. [19], Although the Russian Empire played a leading political role in the next century, thanks to its defeat of Napoleonic France, its retention of serfdom precluded economic progress of any significant degree. See for these periods of extraterritorial control the empire of Japan–Russian Empire relations. After a brief resistance, the colony surrendered and the Russian settlers were deported to Odessa. In the course of its history, the Russian Empire of the second half of the 19th Century passed from a feudal socioeconomic foundation to one grounded in capitalism. He also has four sons, guaranteeing on past evidence a frenzy of bloodshed after his death. Is the natural and officially recognized successor to the college itself, the Russian Empire in,... He argues that they brought about measurable improvements in Social welfare reforms, most dramatically the emancipation of all ministers... 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