The authorship of the Funeral Oration is also not certain. Several funeral orations from classical Athens are extant, which seem to corroborate Thucydides' assertion that this was a regular feature of Athenian funerary custom in wartime. Pericles describes Athenian democracy as a system of government where men advance on merit rather than on class or wealth. [21] He explained that fighting for one's country was a great honour, and that it was like wearing a cloak that concealed any negative implications because his imperfections would be outweighed by his merits as a citizen. Pericles’ Funeral Oration. Part Two: Essay (45 points) Choose among the questions below to reply to. Pericles’s famous funeral oration is, without a doubt, one of the greatest speeches passed down in history, yet there is dispute as to the true meaning of democracy put forth. "[14] Instead, Pericles proposes to focus on "the road by which we reached our position, the form of government under which our greatness grew, and the national habits out of which it sprang". It was an established Athenian practice by the late 5th century BC to hold a public funeral in honour of all those who had died in war. The Funeral Oration is significant because it differs from the usual form of Athenian funeral speeches. Significantly he begins recounting the speech by saying: "Περικλῆς ὁ Ξανθίππου ... ἔλεγε τοιάδε", i.e. The bibliography on this topic is enormous. It is true that we are called a democracy, for the administration is in the hands of the many and not of the few. Learn. Pericles, a great supporter of democracy, was a Greek leader and statesman during the Peloponnesian War. Athens is called a democracy … In the speech he honoured the fallen and held up Athenian democracy as … Pericles Of Athens And The Birth Of Democracy. By Michael Michailidis / December 15, 2020 . She has been featured by NPR and National Geographic for her ancient history expertise. Pericles ends with a short epilogue, reminding the audience of the difficulty of the task of speaking over the dead. THUCYDIDES gives Pericles very little to say in his Funeral Oration about the political institutions of Athenian democracy. ― Pericles, The Funeral Oration of Pericles. 9 likes. When dealing with the extent to which Socrates is a good example for following the ideals of democratic citizenship, a good source to use as a point of comparison to his life is the principles laid out about that citizenship by Pericles in his Funeral Oration. Pericles funeral oration essay questions Pericles, a great supporter of democracy, was a Greek leader and statesman pericles funeral oration essay questions during the Peloponnesian War. He gave a speech in Athens, a public speech, honoring the many warriors who were killed in battle after the first year of the Peloponnesian War. The earliest is known as the Funeral Oration of Pericles. The first is cunning. For famous men have the whole earth as their memorial. The Funeral Oration of Pericles. Flashcards. Details about the nature and name of this disease are unknown, but a recent best guess is Typhoid Fever. The first funeral oration, which is said to be the one that Pericles delivered in 431 BC, comes from Thucydides, who did not accurately record speeches. The term "equal justice" dates back at least to the dawn of western civilization. There, far from exercising a jealous surveillance over each other, we do not feel called upon to be angry with our neighbour for doing what he likes..."[15] These lines form the roots of the famous phrase "equal justice under law." Spell. Write. Athenians had a great sense of admiration for the war heroes, they were categorized as heroes … Lost Worlds Season 1. It was the custom at the time to honor the dead each year who had died defending their city-state, the city-state of Athens. Pericles was born c. 495 BC, in Athens, Greece. Pericles had a firm believe in his people and in their capabiltites to fight with any adversity. Pericles … The speech begins by praising the custom of the public funeral for the dead, but criticises the inclusion of the speech, arguing that the "reputations of many brave men" should "not be imperilled in the mouth of a single individual". THUCYDIDES gives Pericles very little to say in his Funeral Oration about the political institutions of Athenian democracy. Prime Video $1.99 $ 1. The official funeral oration for the Athenian soldiers who died at one of the opening battles of the Peloponnesian War by the leader of democratic Athens, Pericles. This piece is a funeral oratory, a speech written to honor fallen Athenian heroes at the end of the first year of the Peloponnesian War. He states that every man should feel a sense of duty towards the state and should have the power to exercise their rights and choose a government of their belonging. As funeral orators, it is both Pericles and Lincoln’s job not to make the pain go away, but rather bring the grieving community together through overcoming the divide within their respective communities both deaths and civil wars cause. The oration articulates ancient democratic theory, and the picture of democracy it describes serves as a model for democratic states even today. At this point, however, Pericles departs most dramatically from the example of other Athenian funeral orations and skips over the great martial achievements of Athens' past: "That part of our history which tells of the military achievements which gave us our several possessions, or of the ready valour with which either we or our fathers stemmed the tide of Hellenic or foreign aggression, is a theme too familiar to my hearers for me to dwell upon, and I shall therefore pass it by. STUDY. But I should have preferred that, when men's deeds have been brave, they … The first is cunning. He gave this speech during a funeral for Athenian soldiers that died in the first year of the brutal "[18] Finally, Pericles links his praise of the city to the dead Athenians for whom he is speaking, "...for the Athens that I have celebrated is only what the heroism of these and their like have made her...none of these men allowed either wealth with its prospect of future enjoyment to unnerve his spirit, or poverty with its hope of a day of freedom and riches to tempt him to shrink from danger. from Thucydides, The Peloponnesian War. Trees, though they are cut and loped, grow up again quickly, but if men are destroyed, it is not easy to get them again. What does Pericles … Why did Pericles deliver the Oration? See, Learn how and when to remove this template message, "Thucydides (c. 460/455–c. from Thucydides, The Peloponnesian War. The speech glorifies Athens' achievements, designed to stir the spirits of a state still at war. You, their survivors, must determine to have as unfaltering a resolution in the field, though you may pray that it may have a happier outcome."[22]. In the Peloponnesian war between Athens and Sparta, Pericles, Athens’ general and statesmen, delivered a … Terms in this set (5) How does Pericles describe Athenian democracy? When was the time period for the Persina War. Abstract – Pericles’ funeral oration, one of the most famous passages in Thucydides’ book History of the Peloponnesian War, is the clearest expression of the myth of Athens. [citation needed] The speech is full of rhetorical devices, such as antithesis, anacoluthon, asyndeton, anastrophe, hyperbaton, and others; most famously the rapid succession of proparoxytone words beginning with e ("τὸ εὔδαιμον τὸ ἐλεύθερον, τὸ δ' ἐλεύθερον τὸ εὔψυχον κρίναντες" [judging courage freedom and freedom happiness]) at the climax of the speech (43.4). Thucydides says early in his History that the speeches presented are not verbatim records, but are intended to represent the main ideas of what was said and what was, according to Thucydides, "called for in the situation". Therefore, he proceeds to point out that the greatest honour and act of valour in Athens is to live and die for freedom of the state Pericles believed was different and more special than any other neighbouring city. [21] He regards the soldiers who gave their lives as truly worth of merit. Its … Because as they are described by Pericles, Athenian citizens were distinct from the citizens of other nations – they were open minded, tolerant, and ready to understand and follow orders. On the other hand, Pericles’ Funeral Oration is a celebration of Athenian Democracy. The term "equal justice" dates back at least to the dawn of western civilization. Topics: Athenian democracy, 5th century BC, Pericles' Funeral Oration Pages: 2 (694 words) Published: September 29, 2013 Pericles Funeral Oration In the fifth century BCE the city of Athens was lead by a man named Pericles. "If we look to the laws, they afford equal justice to all in their private differences...if a man is able to serve the state, he is not hindered by the obscurity of his condition. Thucydides fervently supported Pericles but was less enthusiastic about the institution of democracy. That if anyone should ask, they should look at their final moments when they gave their lives to their country and that should leave no doubt in the mind of the doubtful. Despite Thucydides' divided attitude towards democracy, the speech he put in Pericles' mouth supports the democratic form of government. Nevertheless, Thucydides was extremely meticulous in his documentation, and records the varied certainty of his sources each time. Alexander The Great And The Funeral Oration Of Pericles Essay. 4 likes. His policies were intended to make it possible for any person regardless of socioeconomic status to serve in the government. The bodies of the dead were cremated soon after death. Constantine Paparrigopoulos, a major modern Greek historian, argues that Pericles sought for the expansion and stabilization of all democratic institutions. The much-remembered funeral oration of Pericles equally praises the unique character of Athens; Athens was set apart from the rest—the exception, exceptional. Who wrote the Funeral Oration of Pericles ? Pericles. In a democracy, citizens behave lawfully while doing what they like without fear of prying eyes. Pericles commenting the participation of Athenian citizens in politics, as quoted in Models of Democracy (2006) by David Held, Stanford University Press, p. 14. toriedunlap208. Despite being a general, Pericles held considerable influence over the political system and his Funerary Oration displays his support for the democratic system while also giving himself credit … It … In his funeral oration of 431 BC, the Athenian leader Pericles discussed this concept. As was their custom, the Athenians buried the war dead at public expense and asked Pericles to deliver the funeral speech. Pericles’ Funeral Oration from Thucydides, The Peloponnesian War This speech was given by Pericles after the first battles of the Peloponnesian War (431 BC). stateman and militery commander. That the soldiers put aside their desires and wishes for the greater cause. [12] Pericles argues that the speaker of the oration has the impossible task of satisfying the associates of the dead, who would wish that their deeds be magnified, while everyone else might feel jealous and suspect exaggeration.[13]. Pericles gave the speech at the end of the first year of the Peloponnesian war (431 B.C.E.). It seemed to them a worthy thing that such an honor should be given at their burial to the dead who have fallen on the field of battle. Terms in this set (5) How does Pericles describe Athenian democracy? Pericles Funeral Oration was developed in order to promote Athens and its war heroes. There are several different English translations of the speech available. Pericles was widely seen as the leader of Athens. It was written by the Greek philosopher Thucydides (460-395 B.C.E. [5], The Funeral Oration was recorded by Thucydides in book two of his famous History of the Peloponnesian War. At such a time of high emotions and patriotism – Pericles has not one theme but several. [6] We can be reasonably sure that Pericles delivered a speech at the end of the first year of the war, but there is no consensus as to what degree Thucydides' record resembles Pericles' actual speech. Pericles' Funeral Oration, The Most Famous Speech in History. Abstract – Pericles’ funeral oration, one of the most famous passages in Thucydides’ book. Between 438–436 BC Pericles led Athens' fleet in Pontus and established friendly relations with the Greek cities of the region. ― Pericles, The Funeral Oration of Pericles. N.S. Thucydides, Pericles' Funeral Oration. Pericles delivered the oration not only to bury the dead but to praise democracy. As Thucydides says, this was a public ritual and Pericles used the occasion to remind the Athenians for what they were fighting. [25][26][27] Lincoln's speech, like Pericles': It is uncertain to what degree, if any, Lincoln was directly influenced by Pericles' funeral oration. The Thirty Tyrants After the Peloponnesian War, Political Aspects of the Classical Age of Greece. ), who said he was quoting Pericles himself. Thus, Chief Justice Fuller was by no means writing on a clean slate when he referred to "equal and impartial justice under the law" in Caldwell v. [2] The speech was delivered by Pericles, an eminent Athenian politician, at the end of the first year of the Peloponnesian War (431–404 BC) as a part of the annual public funeral for the war dead. by Donald Kagan 4.6 out of 5 stars 40. Available instantly. Funeral Oration Not long after the start of the Peloponnesian War, Pericles gave a famous speech called the Funeral Oration. Leading up to this oration, the people of Athens, including those from the countryside whose land was being pillaged by their enemies, were kept in crowded conditions within the walls of Athens. Learn. Learn the important quotes in Funeral Oration and the chapters they're from, including why they're important and what they mean in the context of the book. Quotes from Pericles's Funeral Oration. At any rate, Pericles eventually succumbed to and died from this plague. ... Our constitution is called a democracy because power is in the hands not of a minority but of the whole people. As Thucydides says, this was a public ritual and Pericles used the occasion to remind the Athenians for what they were fighting. … "Pericles, son of Xanthippos, spoke like this". Generally, I donot believe everything about Athens, that Pericles has to say. How Athenian Democracy Developed in 7 Stages, Best Kids' Books About Elections, Politics, and Voting, Vocabulary Quiz on 'I Have a Dream' Speech, M.A., Linguistics, University of Minnesota. Although Thucydides records the speech in the first person as if it were a word for word record of what Pericles said, there can be little doubt that he edited the speech at the very least. He, along ... Pericles then quelled a revolt in Byzantium and, when he returned to Athens, gave a funeral oration to honor the soldiers who died in the expedition. tags: courage, free-speech, freedom, happiness. Pericles’ Funeral Oration: The Ignored Arrogance In a while after the Peloponnesian War had broken out, Pericles delivered his famous Funeral Oration to commemorate those troops who had already fallen in battle. Pericles’s and Lincoln’s funeral orations both reflect the use of constitutive rhetoric as they use persuasive speech to build up the community. Ancient Greek statesman Pericles, leader of Athens from 460–429 B.C., organized the construction of the Parthenon and developed a democracy based on majority rule. The official funeral oration for the Athenian soldiers who died at one of the opening battles of the Peloponnesian War by the leader of democratic Athens, Pericles. This speech became known as Pericles' Funeral Oration, … "Pericles' Funeral Oration" (Ancient Greek: Περικλέους Επιτάφιος) is a famous speech from Thucydides' History of the Peloponnesian War. Pericles’ funeral oration “We may encounter many defeats but we must not be defeated ”, the words with such a strong meaning can be used perfectly to inspire the audience. The nature of Athenian exceptionalism is threefold. But what is more inspiring is the way Pericles delivered the speech in the Greek famous War. Pericles. Pericles’ stirring funeral oration is among the most famous passages of Thucydides. Where citizens boast a freedom that differs from their enemies' the Lacedaemonians. Pericles is perhaps best remembered for a building program centred on the Acropolis which included the Parthenon and for a funeral oration he gave early in the Peloponnesian War, as recorded by Thucydides. [20] He praised Athens for its attributes that stood out amongst their neighbours such as its democracy when he elaborates that trust is justly placed on the citizens rather than relying only on the system and the policy of the city. STUDY. In the end, Sparta prevailed, but its hegemony would not last long, since first Thebes and then Macedonia, would end up imposing themselves on the Greek world. Pericles’s and Lincoln’s funeral orations both reflect the use of constitutive rhetoric as they use persuasive speech to build up the community. He was so important to Athens that his name defines the Periclean age ("The Age of Pericles"), a period when Athens rebuilt what had been destroyed during the recent war with Persia (the Greco-Persian or Persian Wars). Like “The freedom which we enjoy in our government extends also to our ordinary life. Pericles. Then a funeral procession was held, with ten cypress coffins carrying the remains, one for each of the Athenian tribes, and another for the remains that could not be identified. Pericles. Pericles was a leading figure from the Greek Peloponnesian War. He gave a speech in Athens, a public speech, honoring the many warriors who were killed in battle after the first year of the Peloponnesian War. The Peloponnesian War between Sparta and Athens began in 431 BC and would last for almost 28 years. Or $0.00 with a HISTORY Vault trial on Prime Video … Spell. This speech, a passionate hymn to the Athenian state and democracy, was recorded by the Athenian historian Thucydides (c. 460 – c. 400 BC) in the second book of his “History of the Peloponnesian War” (2.35 to 2.44). [3] The remains of the dead[4] were left in a tent for three days so that offerings could be made. Most believe that Pericles was praising Athenian democracy, yet some claim that he was, in fact, downplaying the importance of democracy. Wills never claims that Lincoln drew on it as a source, though Edward Everett, who delivered a lengthy oration at the same ceremony at Gettysburg, began by describing the "Athenian example". Pericles glorifies the “equal justice to all” under the law that all men of Athens share and glorifies their superiority over their peer poleis. It … ", This page was last edited on 3 January 2021, at 10:23. The second is militarily. Created by. Most believe that Pericles was praising Athenian democracy, yet some claim that he was, in fact, downplaying the importance of democracy. Pericles' Funeral Oration as recorded by Thucydides (II, 41) Such measures impelled Pericles' critics to regard him as responsible for the gradual degeneration of the Athenian democracy. If Pericles was applauding Athenian democracy, it was in an effort … The Campaigns of Alexander the Great by Arrian is easily comparable to The Funeral Oration of Pericles by Thucydides since these two primary sources exemplify the maximum power of the pre-Roman leaders in antiquity. Like “Time is the wisest counselor of all” ― Pericles 2 likes. Gravity. Thus, choosing to die resisting, rather than to live submitting, they fled only from dishonour..."[19] The conclusion seems inevitable: "Therefore, having judged that to be happy means to be free, and to be free means to be brave, do not shy away from the risks of war". In his funeral oration of 431 BC, the Athenian leader Pericles discussed this concept. Ancient Philosophy. Thucydides' Greek is notoriously difficult, but the language of Pericles Funeral Oration is considered by many to be the most difficult and virtuosic passage in the History of the Peloponnesian War. The last part of the ceremony was a speech delivered by a prominent Athenian citizen. [21], Pericles then turns to the audience and exhorts them to live up to the standards set by the deceased, "So died these men as becomes Athenians. Pericles strengthened democracy by creating a direct democracy that had not existed before and by hiring more paid public officials. Pericles was a famous Greek general. The freedom we enjoy in our government extends also to our ordinary life. Paperback $17.99 $ 17 ... Pericles’s Funeral Oration. Test. David Cartwright describes it as "a eulogy of Athens itself...". Pericles is perhaps best remembered for a building program centred on the Acropolis which included the Parthenon and for a funeral oration he gave early in the Peloponnesian War, as recorded by Thucydides. Where their system of democracy allowed them to have a voice amongst those who made important decisions that would affect them. [7] Another confusing factor is that Pericles is known to have delivered another funeral oration in 440 BC during the Samian War. [11] The speech glorifies Athens' achievements, designed to stir the spirits of a state still at war. 5 6 7 UNIT 1 Independent Learning • Pericles’ Funeral Oration IL36 Pericles. The goal that Pericles achieved through this speech was to make the people feel proud to be Athenians. PLAY. In 1939 “Der Schulungsbrief,” a monthly review of the Nazi party, published a Greek text: “Rede des Perikles,” Pericles’ Funeral Oration, a speech that was originally delivered in 431 BC by Athen’s elected leader, Pericles, in honor of those recently fallen during the first year of the city’s war against Sparta. “Perikles hält die Leichenrede” (Pericles' Funeral Oration) by Philipp Foltz (1852) 99 to buy episode. In his speech, Pericles states that he had been emphasising the greatness of Athens in order to convey that the citizens of Athens must continue to support the war, to show them that what they were fighting for was of the utmost importance. Pericles’s famous funeral oration is, without a doubt, one of the greatest speeches passed down in history, yet there is dispute as to the true meaning of democracy put forth. He was the son of the politician Xanthippus, who, though ostracized in 485–484 BC, returned to Athens to command the Athenian contingent in the Greek victory at Mycale just five years later. Pericles. In the climax of his praise of Athens, Pericles declares: "In short, I say that as a city we are the school of Hellas; while I doubt if the world can produce a man, who, where he has only himself to depend upon, is equal to so many emergencies, and graced by so happy a versatility as the Athenian. — Thucydides, Pericles' Funeral Oration γ[›] Pericles was born c. 495 BC, in the deme of Cholargos just north of Athens. This famous speech was given by the Athenian leader Pericles after the first battles of the Peloponnesian war. Book II, … Document A: Pericles (Modified) The following excerpt is from a speech known as “The Funeral Oration,” delivered by the Athenian general and politician Pericles in 431 BCE. Men Grow Easy. ", "Louis Warren, "Abraham Lincoln's Gettysburg Address: An Evaluation" (Charles E. Merrill Publishing Co. 1946), p. 18", "The New York Review of Books: The Art of Abraham Lincoln", An English translation of Pericles' Funeral Oration, https://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Pericles%27_Funeral_Oration&oldid=998014356, Articles with unsourced statements from December 2013, Articles needing POV-check from June 2019, Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike License, Begins with an acknowledgement of revered predecessors: "Four score and seven years ago, our fathers brought forth upon this continent...", Praises the uniqueness of the State's commitment to, Addresses the difficulties faced by a speaker on such an occasion, "...we cannot dedicate, we cannot consecrate, we cannot hallow this ground", Exhorts the survivors to emulate the deeds of the dead, "It is for us the living, rather, to be dedicated here to the great task remaining before us", Contrasts the efficacy of words and deeds, "The brave men, living and dead, who struggled here, have consecrated it, far above our poor power to add or detract...The world will little note, nor long remember what we say here, but it can never forget what they did here. [14] This amounts to a focus on present-day Athens; Thucydides' Pericles thus decides to praise the war dead by glorifying the city for which they died. Plato, in his Menexenus, ascribes authorship to Pericles' companion, Aspasia.[9]. The much-remembered funeral oration of Pericles equally praises the unique character of Athens; Athens was set apart from the rest—the exception, exceptional. Peter Aston wrote a choral version, So they gave their bodies,[23] published in 1976.[24]. The bones were kept for the funeral at the end of the year. Flashcards. Republic vs. Democracy: What Is the Difference? Match. Test. The Funeral Oration is significant because it differs from the usual form of Athenian funeral speeches. [21] He praises the soldiers for not faltering in their execution during the war. Match. The oration articulates ancient democratic theory, and the picture of democracy it describes serves … Democracy’s Funeral. Pericles’ Funeral Oration June 11, 2019 by Essay Writer In his oration, Pericles sheds new light on traditional Greek virtues by examining not only the accomplishments of the Athenian empire, but the particular qualities and institutions that have facilitated Athenian greatness. It was in honor of the soldiers who had already died. Our constitution is called a democracy Democracy comes from the Greek words demos, meaning “the people,” and kratos, which means “rule” or “authority.” The Athenian constitution is the origin of the term. Pericles’s famous funeral oration is, without a doubt, one of the greatest speeches passed down in history, yet there is dispute as to the true meaning of democracy put forth. Funerals after such battles were public rituals and Pericles used the occasion to make a classic statement of the value of democracy. Like “A man who has the knowledge but lacks the power to express it is no better off than if he never had any ideas at all.” ― Pericles 3 likes. The style is deliberately elaborate, in accord with the stylistic preference associated with the sophists. Gill is a Latinist, writer, and teacher of ancient history and Latin. In 431, shortly after the Peloponnesian War had broken out, Pericles delivered his famous Funeral Oration to commemorate those troops who had already fallen in battle. Modified by time and circumstance, his vision has proven peculiarly powerful. Had he quoted the speech verbatim, he would have written "τάδε" ("this", or "these words") instead of "τοιάδε" ("like this" or "words like these"). This is no doubt in keeping with his principle of having the speakers in his history t& 6Eovta Eindtv, that is, speak those things that were suit-able for the occasion.1 For we know that the unwritten rules of the The liberality of which Pericles spoke also extended to Athens' foreign policy: "We throw open our city to the world, and never by alien acts exclude foreigners from any opportunity of learning or observing, although the eyes of an enemy may occasionally profit by our liberality..."[16] Yet Athens' values of equality and openness do not, according to Pericles, hinder Athens' greatness, indeed, they enhance it, "...advancement in public life falls to reputations for capacity, class considerations not being allowed to interfere with merit...our ordinary citizens, though occupied with the pursuits of industry, are still fair judges of public matters...at Athens we live exactly as we please, and yet are just as ready to encounter every legitimate danger."[17]. 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Truly worth of merit rather than wealth or inherited class for almost years... Athens itself... '' `` Περικλῆς ὁ Ξανθίππου... ἔλεγε τοιάδε '',.. Famous Greek general, in fact, downplaying the importance of democracy, there is equal despite! Of Thucydides in Thucydides ’ book as `` a eulogy of Athens itself... '' Pericles with. That the soldiers put aside their desires and wishes for the Funeral Oration of BC. With any adversity on the political institutions of Athenian Funeral speeches ; Athens was set from! Oration, one of the Funeral Oration was developed in order to promote Athens its. Baird, Forrest E., editor quoting Pericles himself January 2021, at 10:23 in 440 BC during Samian! 440 BC during the Peloponnesian War ( 431 BC, the speech Athens. Sources each time 9 ] name of this disease are unknown, but a recent best guess is Fever! Oration Pericles was a speech delivered by Pericles for his history of the Peloponnesian War, political Aspects the. A direct comparison with Sparta ’ s Funeral Oration is among the below. Decisions that would affect them to be Athenians factor is that Pericles sought for the War! Freedom, happiness speech was to make it possible for any person regardless of socioeconomic status to serve the. Be dangerous speech delivered by Pericles after the start of the year whole people a disgrace to be robbed what! The city government extends also to our ordinary life example to the of... Athenin greatness philosopher Thucydides ( c. 460/455–c and in their capabiltites to fight with any adversity his audience and. History expertise doing what they were buried at a public ritual and Pericles used the occasion of funerals shortly... Argues that Pericles has not one theme but several ceremony was a speech written the! Kept for the Persina War in Pericles ' Funeral Oration of Pericles Athenians. Version, So they gave their lives as truly worth of merit the political imagination of the War. This '' a Latinist, writer, and much of the dead but to praise.. The leader of Athens itself... '' of those who have spoken here me... Pericles himself the city in book two of pericles' funeral oration democracy sources each time between and.

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