Copyright © 2021 Reza Pahlavi, All Rights Reserved. See more. Shah of Iran, Mohammad Reza Pahlavi pictured with Queen consort of Iran, Farah Diba outside a residential house circa 1966. Following the coup d'état in 1953 supported by the United Kingdom and the United States, Mohammad Reza Pahlavi's rule became more autocratic and was aligned with the Western Bloc during the Cold War, although he enacted a series of economic and social reforms known as the White Revolution. Farah Pahlavi was the wife of the Shah, Mohammad Reza Pahlavi, and thereby the empress of the powerful nation of Iran. PRINCE REZA PAHLAVI DISCUSSED THE ROAD TO DEMOCRACY IN IRAN. The Pahlavi dynasty has sometimes been described as a "royal dictatorship", or "one man rule". Germany and Italy quickly sent the pro-Axis forces in Iraq military aid from Syria but during the period from May to July the British and their allies defeated the pro-Axis forces in Iraq and later Syria and Lebanon. It was run after the revolution, according to U.S. sources and Iranian exile sources in the US and in Paris, by Gen. Hossein Fardoust, who was deputy chief of SAVAK under Mohammad Reza's reign, and a friend from boyhood of the deposed monarch. Statement by the president of the IRANNC welcoming new President-Elect of the United States of Am... Thirty-Seven Years of the Islamic Republic’s Tyranny, CHAMPIONS OF JEWISH VALUES INTERNATIONAL AWARDS GALA MAY 5TH, 2016, National Aspirations vs. the Interests of the Islamic Republic. At the end of the war, Soviet troops remained in Iran and established two puppet states in north-western Iran, namely the People's Government of Azerbaijan and the Republic of Mahabad. Major plans to build Iran's infrastructure were undertaken, a new middle class began flourishing and in less than two decades Iran became the indisputable major economic and military power of the Middle East. MESSAGE OF REZA PAHLAVI, PRESIDENT OF THE IRAN NATIONAL COUNCIL TO THE HEADS OF ST... IRAN’S FUTURE – BBC Presenter Huw Edwards Interviews Prince Reza Pahlavi, BBC HARDtalk – Stephen Sackur speaks to Prince Reza Pahlavi. Find Reza Pahlavi's phone number, address, and email on Spokeo, the leading online directory for contact information. Interviews . This led to the Iran crisis of 1946, one of the first confrontations of the Cold War, which ended after oil concessions were promised to the USSR and Soviet forces withdrew from Iran proper in May 1946. Mohammad Reza fled the country, seeking medical treatment in Egypt, Mexico, the United States, and Panama, and finally resettled with his family in Egypt as a guest of Anwar Sadat. His mother was a Muslim immigrant from Georgia (then part of the Russian Empire), whose family had emigrated to mainland Persiaafter Persia was forced to cede all of its territorie… The Pahlavi regime collapsed following widespread uprisings in 1978 and 1979. Manouchehr Ganji led an anti-corruption study group which submitted at least 30 reports in 13 years detailing corruption of high-ranking officials and the royal circle, but Shah called the reports "false rumors and fabrications". Britain demanded that Iran expel all German citizens, but Rezā Shāh refused, claiming this would adversely affect his development projects. Share . During The Imperial state of Iran — Reza Shah Pahlavi and his son Mohammad Reza Shah Pahlavi — employed secret police, torture, and executions to stifle political dissent. Reza Pahlavi is credited for reunification of Iran under a powerful central government. [26], Former country in Western Asia (1925–1979), • Constituent Assembly voted formation of Pahlavi dynasty, Louise Fawcett, "Revisiting the Iranian Crisis of 1946: How Much More Do We Know?. He was the second and last monarch of the House of Pahlavi of the Iranian monarchy. Reza Pahlavi in the Wall Street Journal, 9 February 2017: The Trump Effect-66 3364 . [23], Under the Qajar dynasty the Persian character of Iran was not very explicit. [8][9] His mother was a Muslim immigrant from Georgia (then part of the Russian Empire),[10][11] whose family had emigrated to mainland Qajar Iran after Iran was forced to cede all of its territories in the Caucasus following the Russo-Persian Wars several decades prior to Reza Shah's birth. Mossadegh was then arrested by pro-Shah army forces. By the mid-1970s, relying on increased oil revenues, Mohammad Reza began a series of even more ambitious and bolder plans for the progress of his country and the march toward the "White Revolution". Farah Pahlavi was the wife of the Shah, Mohammad Reza Pahlavi, and thereby the empress of the powerful nation of Iran. However, British authorities in Bombay did not allow him … [19][20] This pro-Soviet nominal-government fell by November 1946, after support from the United States for Iran to reclaim the regions that declared themselves autonomous. Today is the 2017 International Women’s Day. His parents were Abbas Ali Khan and Noushafarin Ayromlou. In 1951, the Majlis (the Parliament of Iran) named Mohammad Mossadegh as new prime minister by a vote of 79–12, who shortly after nationalized the British-owned oil industry (see Abadan Crisis). The founder of Pahlavi royal dynasty, Reza Shah (1925-1941) stayed at Valery Palace in Mauritius for a few months after being exiled under the pressure from British forces who had occupied Iran alongside the Red Army. 1st Spouse Maryam Khanum (died 1904) Issue Hamdam Saltaneh Pahlavi (1903–1992) 2nd Spouse Tadj ol-Molouk (1896–1982) Issue Princess Shams Pahlavi (1917–1996 at age 79) Crown Prince Mohammad-Rezā Shāh Pahlavi … Reza Shah refused to expel the Germans and on 25 August 1941, the British and Soviets launched a surprise invasion and Reza Shah's government quickly surrendered after less than a week of fighting. Farah Pahlavi (Persian: فرح پهلوی ‎, née Farah Diba Persian: فرح دیبا ‎; born 14 October 1938) is the widow of Mohammad Reza Pahlavi and former Shahbanu of Iran.. Farah was born into a prosperous family, whose fortunes were diminished after her father's early death. Reza Shah expected to spend his last days in Bombay [now Mumbai] in then British India. While the Tudeh headquarters in Tehran were occupied and the Isfahan branch crushed, the Soviet troops present in the Northern parts of the country prevented the Iranian forces from entering. Jun 4, 2018 - Explore aicha rochdi's board "Mohamed Reza Pahlavi of Iran & Family", followed by 6328 people on Pinterest. This year’s theme at the United Nations is “Planet 50-50 … The regime’s track [...], Reza Pahlavi Interview with Jon Gambrell at the Dubai desk of the Associated Press, 9 April 2017, Milton S. Eisenhower Symposium Johns Hopkins University   Ladies and Gentlemen, good evening. Potomac, MD 20854 Find on map >> Owner: REZA PAHLAVI TR Total land value: $801,580 Total value for property: $3,058,052 Total assessed value for property: $3,058,052 Base area of building: 7,322 square feet Number of stories: 2.5 Date of current assessment: 10/2007 Year property was built: 1989. 11018 Glen Road Potomac, MD 20854 Find on map >> Owner: HENRY … The Pahlavi dynasty is an Iranian royal dynasty of Mazandarani ethnicity. “The first victims of terrorism in the Islamic world are Muslims themselves,” says Reza Pahlavi, the eldest son of Iran’s last monarch, on Donald J. Trump’s travel ban. Although the country was referred to as Persia by westerners, and the dominant language in court and administration was Persian the dichotomy between pure Persian and Turkic elements had remained obvious until 1925. The Pahlavi rule was instrumental in Iran's nationalisation in line with Persian culture and language which, among other ways, was achieved through the official ban on the use minority languages such as Azerbaijani and successful suppression of separatist movements. Pahlavi House Residence of Pahlavi family ( ex-Royal family of Iran ) 11051 Glen Rd, Potomac 3 records for Reza Pahlavi. The Shah's government suppressed its opponents with the help of Iran's security and intelligence secret police, SAVAK. Print. But his socioeconomic advances increasingly irritated the clergy. 3132. He was married to Christiane Cholewska; they had a son, Patrick Ali Pahlavi (born 1 September 1947) but Christiane had a son since a previous marriage, Joachim … Reza Pahlavi and his wife live in the United States in Potomac, Maryland, with three daughters. “She has persevered as a strong mother figure,” the Crown Prince said. His successor, Mohammad Reza Pahlavi, announced in 1959 that both Persia and Iran were acceptable and could be used interchangeably. ", Learn how and when to remove this template message, History of Iran § Pahlavi era (1925–1979), Human rights in the Imperial State of Iran, "Flags of the World: Iranian Empire (Pahlavi Dynasty, 1964–1979)", "Imperial power and dictatorship: Britain and the rise of Reza Shah, 1921-1926", "State and Society in Iran: The Eclipse of the Qajars and the Emergence of the Pahlavis", United States Army Center of Military History, "Son of Iran's Last Shah: 'I Am My Own Man, "Iran: regionalism, ethnicity and democracy", "Former Iranian Crown Prince Reza Pahlavi will proclaim himself the new shah of Iran", Ministry of Intelligence and National Security, Industrial Development and Renovation Organization (IDRO), Iran Aviation Industries Organization (IAIO), https://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Pahlavi_dynasty&oldid=999290843, Former member states of the United Nations, States and territories established in 1925, States and territories disestablished in 1979, Short description is different from Wikidata, Articles needing additional references from February 2011, All articles needing additional references, Articles containing Persian-language text, Pages using infobox country or infobox former country with the flag caption or type parameters, Pages using infobox country or infobox former country with the symbol caption or type parameters, Articles with unsourced statements from November 2020, Articles with unsourced statements from March 2018, Wikipedia articles with WorldCat-VIAF identifiers, Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike License, Shâh: Emperor, followed by Shâhanshâh of Iran, with style, Valiahd: Crown Prince of Iran, with style, Younger sons: Prince (Shâhpūr, or King's Son), followed by first name and surname (Pahlavi), and style, Daughters: Princess (Shâhdokht, or King's Daughter), followed by first name and surname (Pahlavi), and style, Children of the monarch's daughter/s use another version of Prince (Vâlâ Gohar, "of superior essence") or Princess (Vâlâ Gohari), which indicate descent in the second generation through the female line, and use the styles, "Empire" as a description of foreign policy, This page was last edited on 9 January 2021, at 12:36. Such opponents included leftists and Islamists. Mossadegh was opposed by the Shah who feared a resulting oil embargo imposed by the West would leave Iran in economic ruin. Pahlavi definition, the Indo-European, Iranian language of the Zoroastrian literature of the 3rd to the 10th centuries. Reza Pahlavi was the Shah’s heir when revolution came to Iran. However, Mosaddegh’s behavior facilitated the UK and US-backed coup d’état, which forced the Shah of Iran to flee the country in 1953. According to one history of the use of torture by the state in Iran, abuse of prisoners varied at times during the Pahlavi reign. The succeeding regime – the Islamic Republic of Iran – has adopted a more inclusive approach in relation to the use of ethnic minorities and their language, however the issues as to Azeris, the Iran's largest ethnic minority, remain and pose considerable challenges for the unity and territorial integrity of Iran.[24]. It was ruled by the Pahlavi dynasty, the last ruling house of Iran, from 1925 until 1979, when the Persian monarchy was overthrown and abolished as a result of the Islamic Revolution. In 1878 Reza Shah Pahlavi was born at the village of Alasht in Savadkuh County, Mazandaran Province. Biography. See more ideas about farah diba, iran, pahlavi dynasty. Reza Pahlavi Interview with Wall Street Journal, 8 February 2017. The Pahlavi dynasty is an Iranian royal dynasty of Mazandarani ethnicity. In 1935, Reza Shah asked foreign delegates to use the endonym Iran in formal correspondence and the official name the Imperial State of Iran was adopted. With a population of 37 million in 1979, Tehran served as its capital city. The Empress’ son, His Imperial Highness Crown Prince Reza Pahlavi and his wife Princess Yasmine also had their special tribute. Reza Shah proclaimed Iran as a neutral country, but Britain insisted that German engineers and technicians in Iran were spies with missions to sabotage British oil facilities in southwestern Iran. The dynasty was founded by Reza Shah Pahlavi in 1925, a former brigadier-general of the Persian Cossack Brigade, whose reign lasted until 1941, when he was forced to abdicate by the Allies … [13] By the mid-1930s, Rezā Shāh's strong secular rule caused dissatisfaction among some groups, particularly the clergy, who opposed his reforms, but the middle and upper-middle class of Iran liked what Rezā Shāh did. Mohammad Reza Pahlavi was shah of Iran following his father's reign. [14] The invasion's strategic purpose was to secure a supply line to the USSR (later named the Persian Corridor), secure the oil fields and Abadan Refinery (of the UK-owned Anglo-Iranian Oil Company), and limit German influence in Iran. In 1963 and 1964, nationwide demonstrations against Mohammad Reza's rule took place all over Ir… [12] His father was a Mazandarani, commissioned in the 7th Savadkuh Regiment, and served in the Anglo-Persian War in 1856. He was succeeded by his son, Mohammad Reza Pahlavi, the last Shah of Iran. Reza Shah tried to avoid involvement with the UK and the Soviet Union. His Imperial Majesty Reza Shah Pahlavi was born in Mazandaran Province in 1878 to Abbas Ali and his wife Noush Afarin. The Shah fled Iran but returned when the United Kingdom and the United States staged a coup against Mossadegh in August 1953 (see Operation Ajax). The dynasty was founded by Reza Shah Pahlavi in 1925, a former brigadier-general of the Persian Cossack Brigade, whose reign lasted until 1941, when he was forced to abdicate by the Allies after the Anglo-Soviet invasion of Iran. In 1935, Rezā Shāh issued a decree asking foreign delegates to use the term Iran in formal correspondence, in accordance with the fact that "Persia" was a term used by Western peoples for the country called "Iran" in Persian. In 1925, Reza Khan, a former Brigadier-General of the Persian Cossack Brigade, deposed the Qajar dynasty and declared himself king (shah), adopting the dynastic name of Pahlavi, which recalls the Middle Persian language of the Sasanian Empire. The use of minority languages in schools and newspapers was not tolerated. The Pahlavi dynasty originated in Iran’s Mazandaran province. This year’s theme at the United Nations is “Planet 50-50 by 2030: Step It Up for Gender Equality.” Approximately 50 percent of working age women are represented in the labor force globally, compared to 76 [...], The universal goals of the Iran National Council’s Charter on Gender Equality as summarized by the Ninth Principle are categorized as follows: 1) Abolishment of all misogynistic laws, which promote gender discrimination, 2) Legislation that guarantees [...], While the political leaders of the Islamic Republic of Iran celebrate their thirty-seventh year of oppressive rule in Iran by sponsoring celebrations in schools and airing fabricated stories on Iranian history while using the nation’s money, scholars and [...], My Fellow Compatriots, The lifting of international economic and financial sanctions, which were imposed on the people of Iran as a result of provocative and destabilizing policies of the theocratic regime, could be a reason to rejoice. Today is the 2017 International Women’s Day. [19] At the time, the Tudeh Party of Iran, a communist party that was already influential and had parliamentary representation, was becoming increasingly militant, especially in the North. Farah Pahlavi was the wife of the Shah, Mohammad Reza Pahlavi, and thereby the empress of the powerful nation of Iran. Reza Pahlavi may refer to: Reza Shah (1878–1944), a.k.a. read more. "The regime dominating our … The Islamic Revolution dissolved the SAVAK and replaced it with the SAVAMA. On the advice of his twin sister, Princess Ashraf, the Shah of Iran agreed to return to Iran and de… Following the invasion, on 16 September 1941 Reza Shah abdicated and was replaced by Mohammad Reza Pahlavi, his 21 year old son.[15][16][17]. In a statement on Tuesday, Iran's exiled Crown Prince Reza Pahlavi condemned a planned 25-year agreement Iran is seeking to sign with China. I especially want to thank the MSE [...], Ladies and Gentlemen, good evening. The House of Pahlavi Mohammad Reza Pahlavi married Farah Diba, the only child of Sohrab Diba, Captain in the Imperial Iranian Army and his wife, the former Farideh Ghotbi. MOHAMMED REZA SHA PAHLAVI - SHAH OF IRAN Mohammad Reza Shah Pahlavi, Shah of Iran, Shah of Persia 26 October 1919 – 27 July 1980), ruled Iran from 16 September 1941 until his overthrow by the Iranian Revolution on 11 February 1979. [18] At the 1943 Tehran Conference, the Allied "Big Three"—Joseph Stalin, Franklin D. Roosevelt, and Winston Churchill—issued the Tehran Declaration to guarantee the post-war independence and boundaries of Iran. To see the full recorded interview, please click on this link [...], https://www.wsj.com/articles/the-trump-effect-domestic-politics-around-the-world-are-churned-by-wild-start-in-office-1486657540 The Trump Effect: The President’s Wild Start Churns Domestic Politics Around the World From Germany to Mexico to Iran to [...], Reza Pahlavi’s interview with Francesca Caferri of Italy’s La Repubblica, Reza Pahlavi in the Wall Street Journal, 9 February 2017: The Trump Effect, Reza Pahlavi Interview with Wall Street Journal, 8 February 2017, Interview with Jon Gambrell of the Associated Press, 9 April 2017, Interview with Germany’s Deutsche Welle 17 February 2017, Reza Pahlavi’s Letter of Congratulation to France’s President-Elect Macron, 8 May 2017. Reza Shah Pahlavi, Shah of Iran from 1925 until 1941; Mohammad Reza Pahlavi (1919–1980), Shah of Iran from 1941 to 1979, son of Reza Shah; Reza Pahlavi, Crown Prince of Iran (born 1960), son of Mohammad Reza Pahlavi This disambiguation page lists articles about people with the same name. Iran claimed to be a neutral country during the opening years of World War II. Could a new wave of protests lead to the exiled Crown Prince finally claiming his title 40 years on? On 13 September 1943 the Allies reassured the Iranians that all foreign troops would leave by 2 March 1946. Crown prince at six Mohammad Reza Pahlavi was born on October 27, 1919. The two puppet states were soon overthrown and the oil concessions were later revoked.[21][22]. [4][5][6][7] In 1878 Reza Shah Pahlavi was born at the village of Alasht in Savadkuh County, Mazandaran Province. This created problems for Iran after 1939, when Germany and Britain became enemies in World War II. During the Shah of Iran’s reign, the efforts made to modernize Iran’s economies led Iranian Prime Minister Mohammad Mosaddegh to nationalize British owned oil industry in Iran. March 8, 2017. The revolution which swept Iran 40 years ago this month united influential bazaar traders, intellectuals and people of all classes against the U.S.-backed Shah Mohammad Reza Pahlavi… Following Reza Shah's deposition and exile, Ali Reza accompanied his father into exile in Mauritius and then into Johannesburg, South Africa.. The Soviets quickly allied themselves with the Allied countries and in July and August, 1941 the British demanded that the Iranian government expel all Germans from Iran. The Pahlavi dynasty’s “wealth” holds no weight compared to that amassed by islamic jihadists who freely live in the USA and Europe. Although the UK, through its ownership of the Anglo-Iranian Oil Company, controlled all of Iran's oil resources, Rezā Shāh preferred to obtain technical assistance from Germany, France, Italy and other European countries. The Imperial State of Iran (Persian: کشور شاهنشاهی ایران‎, romanized: Kešvar-e Šâhanšâhi-ye Irân),[3] also known as the Imperial State of Persia from 1925 to 1935, was a sovereign state in Western Asia which was bordered by Turkey and Iraq to the west, the Soviet Union to the north, Afghanistan and Pakistan to the east and shared a maritime border with Oman toward the south. He wanted to continue the reform policies of his father, but a contest for control of the government soon erupted between him and an older professional politician, the nationalistic Mohammad Mosaddegh. Ali Reza Pahlavi studied political science at Harvard University. The Iranian parliament, known as the Majlis, convening as a Constituent Assembly on 12 December 1925, deposed the young Ahmad Shah Qajar, and declared Reza Khan the new King (Shah) of Imperial State of Persia. This promoted actions from the side of the government, including attempts of the Iranian armed forces to restore order in the Northern provinces. By 1978 the Shah faced growing public discontent and popular rebellion, and the second Pahlavi went into exile with his family in January 1979, sparking a series of events that quickly led to the end of the state and the beginning of the Islamic Republic of Iran on 11 February 1979. The Pahlavi dynasty originated in Mazandaran province. Mohammad Reza Pahlavi replaced his father on the throne on 16 September 1941. Reza Pahlavi, the last heir to Iran's defunct throne and the current head of the exiled House of Pahlavi speaks during an interview with Reuters in Washington, U.S., January 3, 2018. On his death, his son Crown Prince Reza Pahlavi succeeded him in absentia as heir apparent to the Pahlavi dynasty. His parents were Abbas Ali Khan and Noushafarin Ayromlou. Parviz Sabeti, a high-ranking official of SAVAK believed that the one important reason for successful opposition to the regime was the allegations of corruption. 1 2 3 . Statement on the UN’s 2017 International Women’s Day, 8 March 2017. I am delighted to be here with you this evening, and to have this opportunity to address the Milton S. Eisenhower Symposium. Islamic leaders, particularly the exiled cleric Ayatollah Ruhollah Khomeini, were able to focus this discontent with an ideology tied to Islamic principles that called for the overthrow of the Shah and the return to Islamic traditions, called the Islamic revolution. It was ruled by the Pahlavi dynasty, the last ruling house of Iran, from 1925 until 1979, when the Persian monarchy was overthrown and abolished as a result of the Iranian Revolution. Thus, by November 1945 Azerbaijan had become an autonomous state helped by the Tudeh party. In 1963, Mohammad Reza launched the White Revolution, a series of far-reaching reforms, which caused much opposition from the religious scholars. BBC News, Huw Edwards interviews the exiled crown Prince of Iran, Reza Pahlavi about Iran’s future. [citation needed]. The Pahlavis came to power after Ahmad Shah Qajar, the last Qajar ruler of Iran, proved unable to stop British and Soviet encroachment on Iranian sovereignty, had his position extremely weakened by a military coup, and was removed from power by the parliament while in France. They were enraged that the referendum approving of the White Revolution in 1963 allowed women to vote, with the Ayatollah Khomeini saying in his sermons that the fate of Iran should never be allowed to be decided by women. If an internal link led you … Though many of his development projects required foreign technical expertise, he avoided awarding contracts to British and Soviet companies because of dissatisfaction during the Qajar Dynasty between Persia, the UK, and the Soviets. In June 1941, Nazi Germany broke the Molotov–Ribbentrop Pact and invaded the Soviet Union, Iran's northern neighbor. ... House of Pahlavi. I am delighted to be here with you this evening, and to have this opportunity to address the World Affairs Council. Statement on the UN’s 2017 International Women’s Day, 8 March 2017, Iran: Unleashing Her Potential Through Freedom, Democracy and Human Rights, “Iran: The Quest for Freedom, Democracy and Human Rights” – Given at the World Affairs Council, Reza Pahlavi Rejects Regime’s Threat of “Syriazation,” Upon Its Fall, Reza Pahlavi’s Huffington Post Article on the Destruction of Iran’s Water Resources, 19 April 2019. Because the House of Pahlavi were a parvenu house as Reza Khan had begun his career as a private in the Persian Army, rising up to the rank of general, taking power in a coup d'état in 1921, and making himself Shah in 1925, Mohammad Reza was keen to gain the approval of the older royal families of the world, and was prepared to spent large sums of money to gain that social … During the rest of World War II, Iran became a major conduit for British and American aid to the Soviet Union and an avenue through which over 120,000 Polish refugees and Polish Armed Forces fled the Axis advance. He established many reforms to improve the country, but a revolution, led by Ayatollah Ruhollah Khomeini (1900–1989) in 1979, forced him into exile. ", Gary R. Hess, "the Iranian Crisis of 1945–46 and the Cold War. “Despite the tragedies in her life, she surmounted each one gracefully with fortitude and dignity. In April, 1941, the war reached Iran's borders when Rashid Ali, with assistance from Germany and Italy, launched the 1941 Iraqi coup d'état, sparking the Anglo-Iraqi War of May, 1941. We are here tonight to discuss a fundamental aspiration of millions of Iranians: The quest for freedom, [...], In Support of Continued Protests, Pahlavi Pledges Iran Will be Rebuilt   July 06, 2018 – Paris – Iran’s Reza Pahlavi broadcast a video statement to the people of Iran, supporting their legitimate quest for freedom, opportunity and a better [...], Le 8 Mai , 2017 Monsieur le President de la Republique Française Emmanuel Macron Palais de l’Elysee   Monsieur le President, Le peuple de France vient de faire le tres bon choix de vous elever a la plus grande et la plus prestigieuse marche de [...], Click here to see Reza Pahlavi’s Huffington Post article on the destruction of Iran’s water resources, 19 April 2019 Saving Iran from a Regime That is Killing its Natural Resources The mullahs currently in power have turned Iran into a [...], Letter to UK Prime Minister May Regarding Attacks in Wesminster, 25 March 2017. 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